Child Convict George Allen aged 16 transported to New Zealand 1843

CONVICTS SENT TO NEW ZEALAND!

child prisoner2 George Allen convict parkhurst 1847 parkhurstprisondining

When I first put my family tree on Ancestry.co.uk I was contacted from New Zealand saying they had seen my tree and it partly matched theirs.They were relatives of a George Allen.I wondered if he was a convict , but found that New Zealand would not accept convicts.I have just found evidence that they very reluctantly accepted some pardoned young offenders , but very few and made a hell of a fuss about it . I looked through the names and one was called George Allen.Could this be the same George Allen?

The Boys from Parkhurst Prison

On the the Isle of Wight there was a Military Hospital and Children’s asylum, called ‘Parkhurst’ was built on land in the centre of the island in 1778, a large and stately looking house surrounded by its own grounds. By 1838, the British Home Office had decided to convert the property into a prison for young boy offenders up to the age of 15 years, soon to be occupied by some 102 convicted boys transferred from other prisons.

 Many of these boys, some as young as twelve, had committed offences which could only be described today as misdemeanours. Theft and shoplifting, picking pockets or stealing food, were the main offences which had been dealt with harshly by the Police Magistrate's Court in those days, sentences of imprisonment and deportation to Australia for seven to ten years being quite common.

Most of these lads had come from underprivileged homes where the act of theft and stealing had been generated by their need for food or adequate clothing to keep out the cold winter winds, frost and snow.
In 1843, under a new Governor named Captain George Hall, the boys were employed moulding and baking house bricks with which they were to build two new wings for the prison.
By 1853 the transporation of convicts to Australia had ceased .

 In the year 1841, after lobbying by the Quakers, the British Home Office decided to   grant a conditional pardon from the Crown to boys between 13 and 16 years old who were detained in Parkhurst Prison. The boys were to be carefully chosen as deserving a pardon by the then prison governor, Captain Woolcombe. The 'condition' was that the    boys were to serve a two-year apprenticeship on arrival in New Zealand before being    given their independence .The boys who accepted this 'pardon' were to be called 'immigrant boys,' however, the authorities both in England and later New Zealand, still recognised them as criminals just the same.

Eighteen young boys who were ordered to be deported by the Court and who were now granted a Crown pardon, were selected to be sent to Freemantle, Australia. The Simon Taylor left England on the 29th April, 1842 with 245 passengers aboard, eighteen of them Parkhurst Boys, arriving after 111 days, on the 20th August. The Captain presented the Governor of the Colony with their documents of ‘conditional pardon’.

It was a great surprise to the early government in Auckland, when the barque St.George, under Captain Sughrue, sailed into the harbour on the 25th October, 1842, just two weeks later, with ninety-two ‘Parkhurst boys” aboard.

 The then Acting Governor, Shortland, who had many other matters to deal with at the time, following the untimely death of Governor Hobson a few months before, decided to place the boys under the care and guardianship of Captain David Rough, the Government appointed Immigration Agent and Harbourmaster.

It was later considered in Government circles of the time, that the sudden arrival of these boys had breached an undertaking by the authorities in England, who, in setting up New Zealand as a separate Colony from Australia, had agreed that NO convicts were to be shipped. This action by the British Government was seen by the Auckland people as a total betrayal.

 Scarcely had this matter quietened down, when, just over a year later, on the 14th November, 1843, a second vessel named the Mandarin, under Captain T. Smith, arrived in the harbour with another thirty-one Parkhurst 'immigrant boys" aboard. She had sailed from Gravesend on the 18th June 1843 via Hobart, Australia.
 The news of the arrival of more 'Parkhurst Boys' aboard the Mandarin spread rapidly around the growing township. The populace of Auckland were outraged!
Letters of protest appeared in the Southern Cross and Auckland Chronicle newspapers voicing their strong disapproval of the British Government's actions. 

It was found, meanwhile, that there were few openings for the boys in the Auckland workforce. The two trades they had been taught in Parkhurst Prison, tailoring and shoemaking were in little demand. Those in the second shipment who had skills in carpentery and building were given work on construction sites, while those boys who had nothing to offer were consequently put out to tasks that gave them no trade experience at all; some were sent to the copper mines on Great Barrier, where they were treated no better than slaves and the others employed working on the roads, often without boots or any protection on their feet.

 The Acting Governor Shortland, voiced the public concern in a diplomatic note to London. On September 30th 1844 theNew Zealand Journal reported that:

“A notice was brought before the House of Lords of the evils likely to accrue to New Zealand from the transmission of convict boys to the Colony….. that New Zealand was colonised on the faith that it should never be inunduated with a convict population”.
The note continued:
“These reformed convicts are a nuisance and a disgrace to the community; the inhabitants of Auckland are now in constant dread of thefts and robberies from the ‘reformed convicts’.

 An extract from the Southern Cross in the February 1844, also had this to say about the Parkhurst boys:

“The transportation of Parkhurst apprentices to this Colony appears by late accounts from England to be regarded by the friends of New Zealand as an evil and an act of injustice which should not be tolerated. In the Parliamentary intelligence of the Times on July 7th, we find that “The Archbishop of Dublin presented petitions from persons connected with the colony of New Zealand, praying that in future no emancipated convicts should be conveyed there as settlers. The persons who established that colony had a positive promise from the Government that no convicts should be sent to their settlement, yet recently two shiploads of convicts who had served their time had arrived from Parkhurst prison. It was a mere evasion to say that they were not convicts because they had served their period of imprisonment. To him it appeared that a convict and an emancipated one were much the same as a wild beast, loose and a wild beast chained. The petitioners were very anxious that they should have no more such imports.”
“The Earl of Devon said that the petition was well entitled to the careful consideration of the house. He did not think that the petitioners [ New Zealand] had been fairly treated.” “From the above we have every reason to hope that no more of the unfortunate Parkhurst Boys will be inflicted on this Colony.”

 These publications and submissions to the British authorities in the Home Government seemed to have the desired effect and the transportation of   boys from Parkhurst ceased.

 The Parkhurst Boys of 1842 & 1843

 

ST.GEORGE 1842
Astle, William 12 tailor
Axford, John 18 tailor
Axford, William 16 shoemaker
Baker, George 16 shoemaker
Baldwin, William 14 tailor
Beasley, William 14 tailor
Bellamy, David 15 tailor
Biggs, Arthur 16
Blackwell, William G 14 tailor
Bottomley, George 15
Briggs, James 17 tailor
Brown, James 16 shoemaker
Bryant, James 15 shoemaker
Burford, William 18 tailor
Burgess, James 12 tailor
Burke, Michael 12 tailor
Burnard, Isaac 15 tailor
Burnard, Thomas 17 shoemaker
Carter, Edward 14 tailor
Coley, James 15 tailor
Coley, Joseph 17
Chapman, Charles 15
Cook, Samuel 18
Copping, John 16 tailor
Cotey, Joseph 17
Crawford, William 15
Critchley, Thomas 17 tailor
Davis, James 14
Dawes, Frederick 16
Dillion, Thomas 14
Dobby, Michael 15 tailor
Dowie, Henry Buller 19
Edge, George 19 shoemaker
Elder, Alexander 18
Fawian, Thomas 16
Floyd, John 18
Fox, Robert Waylett 15
Garn, William 18
Hardy, Thomas 17
Harvey, Thomas 18
Hitchcock, Benjamin 17
Hollis, William 16 tailor
Holloway, Charles 17 shoemaker
Hopkins, Gabriel 13 shoemaker
Horne, Frederick 15 tailor
Jones, John 17
King, George 18
King, Thomas 15 shoemaker
Lee, John 14 tailor
Liddle, Adam 17
Lloyd, John 15 tailor
Mahoney, John 14
MacKay, William 14 tailor
Malcolm, John 19
Marsh, David 15
Marsh, James 16 shoemaker
Matthews, William 17 tailor
Mellom, Walter 18
Miller, John 15 shoemaker
Minhinnick, John 15 shoemaker
Moody, John 14 tailor
Murguard, Charles 16
Myler, Richard 14 tailor
McGuiness, James 17 shoemaker
McQuarrie, Andrew 17
Nicholson, John 18
Nicholson, William 18
Ogan, John 14 tailor
Parsons, James 16
Phillips, Joseph 14
Piney, James 14
Pool, James 17
Proctor, Thomas 15 tailor
Rampling, James 16
Richmond, Peter 14 tailor
Rook, Thomas 19
Ryan, John 18
Saunders, John 14
Sayles, James 18
Seamell, Henry 20
Shears, John 17 shoemaker
Sheriff, Charles 17 tailor
Sheriff, Charles 17 shoemaker
Smith, William 18
Stokes, James 18
Strong, Henry Stephen 18
Thorn, William 18
Tuft, John 17 shoemaker
Toppeny, William 13
Topping, William 13 tailor
Tuck, William 11 tailor
Tugget, John 17
Warnutt, William 16 tailor
Whitehead, John 18
Willey, John 15 tailor
Wines, Henry 15 tailor
Woodgate, William 16
MANDARIN — 1843
Adams, Thomas 17 carpenter
Allen, George 16 tailor/cooper
Bassan, Henry 16 bricklayer /tailor
Beales, William 18 carpenter
Binnie, Alexander 19 tailor
Cotterill, John 17 tailor
Day, Thomas 18 tailor
Denman, William 15 tailor
Eggerton, Isaac 17 cooper/shoemaker
Farrell, John 16 cooper/shoemaker
Goulburn, Thomas 18 carpenter
Griffiths, James 17 carpenter/shoemaker
Hermitage, John 16 carpenter
Inchie, James 19 cooper
Lamb, Michael 16 bricklayer/shoemaker
Lay, George 20 carpenter
Lynch, John 17 carpenter
Neil, Charles 16 shoemaker
Organ, Richard 16 plumber/glazer
Parker, William 12 tailor
Paton, William 19 bricklayer
Rose, Edwin 17 farmer
Shaw, John 17 shoemaker
Smith, Joseph 18 plasterer/bricklayer
Smith, William 16 farmer
Waller, Alfred 15 carpenter
West, William 16 bricklayer/tailor
Williams, Joseph 17 cooper
Wilson, George 16 shoemaker
[2 names are missing]

By the year 1849 there was little to remind the public of Auckland of the scandal surrounding the arrival of the two ships of ‘Parkhurst Boys.’ They had quickly integrated into the everchanging Auckland society with the arrival of more and more immigrants families settling into the infant Colony.
Fortunately, they were the first and last ‘ex-convicts’ ever sent by the British authorities to the shores of New Zealand.

The dates don’t quite match but only by 2 years.George was born 1828/29 and in the 1851 census it says george  aged 22 is still living at home .so at the moment it looks like it could be a different George Allen , so our George was probably a genuine migrant who immigrated slightly later to better himself.I will check the ship manifests next.Unless of course George managed to get home for a visit ,before returning to New Zealand. So if our George was born in 1828 , in 1843 he would have been 15 very close to the right age. 8 years later he could have saved enough money for a visit home.So really the jury is out as to wether this is the same George Allen , or just a coincidence?

 

Wartime Arlesey Aircraft Crashes and the History of RAF Henlow

Lockheed_A-29_Hudson_USAAF_in_flight_c1941

lockheed hudson gallery Lockheed-Hudson-Wallpaper__yvt2

Lockheed Hudson bomber from RAF Tempsford on Stotfold to Arlesey road – crew of 4 killed – 28 Mar 1944;

The aircraft FK767 had left its base at RAF Tempsford on a training flight. There was an officer pilot  ,an officer navigator , and two airgunner sargeants. On operations as well they carried up to 4 agents and desperately needed supplies for the resistance.

  • The Lockheed Hudson was an American-built light bomber and coastal reconnaissance aircraft built initially for the Royal Air Force shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War and primarily operated by the RAF thereafter. 
  • the lock head Crew
    Lockheed hudson pilots
    credit http://www.roll-of-honour.com complied this information
  • RAF Tempsford was used during the war by the SOE (Special Operations Executive). It was from here that underground agents and their supplies were flown, and dropped into enemy occupied Europe. The station was home to “Special Duties” 138 and 161 Squadrons flying Whitley, Hudson, Halifax and Stirling bombers and also Lysanders.Over 80 aircraft were lost from Tempsford during the war, with many of their crews being killed.Gibraltar Farm Barn was built deliberately to look like a normal farm barn to fool German air-reconnaisance was where agents were supplied with their equipment and their poison pills, in case of capture. Today there are moving memorials to individual R.A.F. aircrews and S.O.E. agents inside the barn. Arround the barn memorial trees have been planted by the Czech, Norwegian and Polish underground resistance and others planted in memory of individual aircrews who never came back.Tempsford Airfield is a private airfield and as such not open to the public. Where possible small groups of visitors may be allowed access but only by prior arrangement. Anyone wishing to visit the airfield must telephone 01767 650251 beforehand
  • The Halifax Crash
  • handley-page-halifax-bomber-01
    halifax large halifax
    This sad story happened on Sunday 19th December 1943 at 19.25. They  still had to fly 8 more sorties to finish their year. A Handley Page Halifax BB364 from Squadron 138 at Tempsford had been in the air 1 hour 5 minutes on a practice flight. It was circulating RAF Henlow airfield dropping off containers on paracutes at a height of 40 feet.
    The young Welsh pilot Sargeant Hubert Williams 21 , was from a small village in Carmarthenshire , called Talaris . He clipped the top of a 280 foot brickyard chimney. Flying low and  at night has got to be the most dangerous flying you can do , especially in a Blackout situation. He knew the chimneys were there but wasn’t flying high enough in the dark to clear them . The aircraft was 1 mile from the airfield.  It burst into flames killing all nine on board . The crash scene was just the other side of the Arlesey Common bridge. A neighbour of mine Ray Shiel heard the crash and rushed down there the next morning as soon as it got light.
    The RAF were trying to stop people going there. But being schoolboys they went in the back woods way and took some metal souvenirs. Parts of aircraft were scattered all over the common.The chimney lights were switched off due to Blackout regulations.The experienced pilot had 252 hrs solo experience. 25 hrs on Halifaxs , and 62 hrs night flying experience , 8hrs on Halifaxs. It was a truly British Crew .Today of course this could never have happened , because the chimney would have set of an alarm and been detected.
    One of the propellors of the Halifax was put up on one of the London Brick Walls.What a shame it has disappeared , it could have been on display somewhere in the village.
    They were so young.
    Pilot Sgt                   HuW Williams 21 ,            the Welsh pilot ,
    Air Gunner Sgt         Alexander McIntyre 36 ,    from Glasgow.
    Nav/Bomber Sgt       Joeseph Polland 31,         from Belfast.
    Pilot / Nav Officer     Cyril Wooldridge 32         from Bromley
    Nav Sgt                    Harold Houghton 22         from Horwich , Lancs
    Air Gunner Sgt         Frank Adams 22             from Islington
    Flt Engineer Sgt        Stanley Higham 23         Mawdesley Lancashire
    Air Gunner Sgt         John Mooney 28             Liverpool
    Air Gunner Sgt         Cyril Addison 37             Liverpool

    Role Heavy bomber
    Manufacturer Handley Page
    First flight 25 October 1939
    Introduction 13 November 1940
    Retired 1961 (Pakistani Air Force)
    Primary users Royal Air Force
    Royal Canadian Air Force
    Royal Australian Air Force
    Free French Air Force
    Produced 1940–1945
    Number built 6,178

    These are not the actual crew but other Temsford aircrew that crashed and died that they have photos of. These were obviously colleagues and friends of theirs.

    Tempsford JamesArmour-1 TempsfordJamesArmour-2 Temsford d.w.Thane D W Temsford Helm G V Temsford Tanner T B Temsford Williams E J
    History of RAF Henlow info from Wikipedia
    While I was researching this story I thought I would include raf Henlow as it is very close to Arlesey , and obviously aircraft were always flying over Arlesey, thus making us a target in WW2.

    Henlow was chosen as a military aircraft repair depot in 1917 and was built by MacAlpine during 1917 and 1918. 4 Belfast Hangars were built and are now listed buildings. An additional hangar was added to the inventory in the 1930s and this too is now listed. Originally a repair depot for aircraft from the Western Front, the Station officially opened on 18 May 1918 when Lt Col Robert Francis Stapleton-Cotton arrived with a party of 40 airmen from Farnborough. The parachute testing unit moved The Officers Engineering School moved there in 1927. During the Second World War Henlow was used to assemble the Hawker Hurricanes which had been built at the Hurricane factory operated by Canadian Car and Foundry in Fort William, Ontario, Canada, under the leadership of Elsie MacGill. After test flying in Fort William, they were disassembled and sent to Henlow in shipping containers for reassembly there. Over 1,400 Hurricanes (about 10% of the total) were built by Canadian Car and Foundry. Henlow was also used as a repair base. Hurricane fighters were dismantled there to be shipped to Malta as well. After the war, Henlow became the RAF Signals Engineering Establishment, but was reduced to a Radio Engineering Unit in 1980.

    A major RAF technical training college was also formed at Henlow after the Second World War and this was amalgamated with RAF College Cranwell in 1965. The RAF Officer Cadet Training Unit then moved in, but this also moved to Cranwell in 1980. In 1983, theLand Registry took over part of the site.

    Henlow Camp, a civilian settlement, has grown up around RAF Henlow since the station’s establishment.

    Present

    Today, RAF Henlow houses the Joint Arms Control Implementation Group (JACIG), all 3 of the RAF’S Police Wings (including the Tactical Provost Squadron), the RAF Centre for Aviation Medicine (RAF CAM), DE&S, 616 Volunteer Gliding Squadron which operatesVigilant T1 motor gliders and number 1 Military Intelligence Brigade HQ. A civilian flying school also operates from the site.

    Administratively, RAF Henlow was part of a combined base, RAF Brampton Wyton Henlow but this has been disbanded with RAF Brampton being closed.

    Facilities

    Henlow facilities include a Medical and Dental Centre, Officers’ Mess, WOs’ and Sgts’ Mess, Junior Ranks Club – ‘Whittles’, Junior Ranks Mess and Coffee Shop – ‘Crystals’, Welfare housing – ‘Whittle’s Inn’, Gymnasium, Swimming pool, bowling alley, an 8 runway grass airfield and a 9 hole golf course open to the public.

    Cadets

    RAF Henlow is also home to 2482 (Henlow) Sqn Air Training Corps.

11 Closed Arlesey Pubs (20 old Photos)

brick ground hotel_Cosy brickground- hotel

These two are both Brickground Hotel .I Haven’t got them all The Cock ,(Hildons) the stag (Davis Row), the railway inn (Blands or Latimers),the bricklayers arms (Near the True Briton) and the Star,I will take one of it now its an Indian restaurant.

I will add the years wen they opened and shut soon too.

Brickground Hotel   47 Hospital Road.(Mallard)           now a nursey
Cock(hildons)   Hitchin Road.                             still a shop
City Arms 1926  station rd                                  now a house
Crown 1985 Opened 1863.                            Now a Block of flats
Fountain  20  hitchin rd                                  now a house
Lamb Inn 196?   station rd                                 now   houses 
Prince Of Wales 1999 60 Hitchin Road. Opened 1865.  row of houses
Rose & Crown 1994 200 High Street.                        now a house
Stag 1926 Davis Row. Opened 1868.          now a house
Star 1994 High Street.                              now an indian restaurant
Three Tuns  201? High Street.                              now a house

a pattern is emerging here

CityArms1925  crown

The City Arms                                                                                                                                                                                The Crown

Fountain lamb inn (2)

 

the fountain                                                                                                                                                                                              the lamb inn

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The Crown                                                                                                                                                                                       The Star

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

The Rose and Crown                                                                                                                                                                          the Fountain

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The Fountain                                                                                                                                                                                  The Lamb Inn

lamb inn (3) Lamb Inn (4) lamb inn before its was rendered old ROSE AND CROWN

The Old Rose and Crown

prince (2) Rose and Crown

the Prince      above and below                                                                                                                                                                               rose and Crown

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TheCrownPH three tuns (2)

The crown                                                                                                                                                                                   The three Tuns

I have had pints in them all that were open  in my drinking lifetime. My favourites were the Brickground , The Three Tons and The Oak. I still use the Oak and the Vicars Inn.